Glossary

A

ABS

ABS stands for acrylonitrile butadiene styrene copolymer, and is a synthetic terpolymer.

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Anglepoise

The “Anglepoise tasklight 1933/34” is a work lamp invented around 1930 by the English car engineer, George Carwardine (1887–1948).

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Art déco

Art déco (short for the French term ‘art décorative’ = decorative art) is a collective term for a style that influenced architecture, poster art, photography, and above all the product design of consumer objects, from approx. 1920 to 1940.

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Art nouveau

Art nouveau is a period of art history dating from the late nineteenth to early twentieth century.

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B

Banal design

Critical term for things that are over-designed, coined by product designer and architect Alessandro Mendini to create awareness of the industrial design of mundane objects and to stylise the trivial as high culture.

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Bauhaus

Bauhaus was founded by Martin Gropius in 1919 as a new type of art academy.

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Bionics

Bionics (biomimicry, biomimetics, biomimesis) describes a science in which nature and its fundamental principles and methods are studied in order for these to be translated into technological applications.

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C

CAD

Computer Aided Design originally referred to technical drawing carried out on the computer.

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Concept

Conceptualisation is an analytical and creative process through which a solution to a task is developed.

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Corporate Identity

Corporate Identity (abbreviated to CI) is a key notion in marketing: how does a company wish to present itself and be perceived?

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D

Design, product design, industrial design

Design originally described the graphic or plastic depiction of a concept (sketch, model).

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E

Ergonomics

Ergonomics (= the natural laws of work) is the study of humans at work, and deals with how people adapt themselves to their working conditions.

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F

Form

Form describes the external plastic shape. It conveys the visual, aesthetic, and symbolic aspects of a product.

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Functionalism

Functionalism means that the design is above all orientated towards the practical, utilitarian use of a building or everyday object, so that purpose and functionality take priority over aesthetic principles.

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G

Gestaltung

The German word “Gestaltung” describes the process through which a person takes a thing (object, topic, structure, etc.) and through his own actions makes it his own, changes it, and makes it usable.

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I

Industrial design, product design

Industrial design and product design are collective terms for the creative process when planning and designing industrially manufactured, mass-produced products.

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Interface design

Interface design is a creative discipline dealing with the communication processes between humans and computers, and involving the visual conceptualisation of user interfaces.

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Interior architecture, interior design

Interior architecture is an area of architecture and encompasses the design, fitting, and decoration of living areas and work spaces.

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J

Jugendstil

Jugendstil is the German term for a style dating from around 1900 that arose as an offshoot of the French and Belgian art nouveau.

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M

Micro-architecture

Micro-architecture refers to small objects of tabletop design whose design has been influenced by architectural forms.

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Minimal art

Minimal art developed in the USA in the 1960s as a tendency towards abstraction in modern art.

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Model construction procedure

In model construction, a real or planned template is created in a three-dimensional, physical object.

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Multi-jet modelling

Multi-jet modelling (MJM) is a manufacturing process in the area of rapid prototyping.

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N

No-design

The term “no-design” was coined in the 1980s by the product designer Jasper Morrison.

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O

Organic design

Organic design is a style of product design which takes as its starting point organic, flowing natural forms.

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P

Pop art

Pop art arose in the 1950s in England and the USA, and in the 1960s developed into an artistic movement of international significance.

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Postmodernism

Postmodernism (lat. post = after) is a cross-genre term for a pluralist stance in style and philosophy which distances itself from the perceived dogmatism of modernism and its aesthetic processes.

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Prototype

In technology and industrial design, the term “prototype” describes the experimental model of a new development.

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PU, PUR

Polyurethanes (abbreviated to PU or PUR) are a group of plastics which, depending on the starting compounds, feature a broad variety of properties.

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PVC

Polyvinyl chloride (abbreviated to PVC) is a plastic whose elasticity can be broadly varied and adapted to different applications through the addition of various substances.

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R

Redesign

Redesign is a term for updating the design of existing products, with the aim of gradually improving the utility value for the user.

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Re-edition

The term “re-edition” is used in furniture and textile design in particular to describe the re-issuing of an older industrial product based on original designs.

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S

Selective laser sintering

Selective laser sintering (SLS) is a procedure used in prototype construction for the rapid production of models or component samples whose spatial structure created layer by layer.

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Small lot production

Small lot production describes the manufacture of a small number of items of the same type and design.

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Stereolithography

Stereolithography (STL or SLA) is another computer-supported process in the area of rapid prototyping (and rapid manufacturing).

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Streamline

The term “streamline” arose in around 1920 in the field of aerodynamics and its experiments to examine the wind resistance of trains, cars, and aeroplanes.

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T

Tabletop design

Tabletop design is a collective term for all kinds of table accessories.

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Tactile design

Tactile design focuses on the sense of touch. Along with functionality and ergonomics, it plays a central role in product design.

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U

Ulm School of Design

The Ulm School of Design was an international school which had an important influence on the teaching, research, and development of product design.

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Unique edition

A unique edition is an item or object of which only one unit is produced.

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